The vast majority of bilingual studies involve two spoken languages. Such “unimodal” bilingualism automatically entails a severe production constraint because one cannot physically produce two spoken words or phrases at the same time. In addition, for unimodal bilinguals both languages are perceived by the same sensory system (audition), whereas for bimodal (speech-sign) bilinguals one language is perceived auditorily and the other is perceived visually. This project investigates how these sensory-motor differences in language modality impact the psycholinguistics of bilingualism, the features of co-speech gesture, and the nature of the bilingual brain. Using behavioral and neuroimaging techniques, we ask the following questions:
- What are the consequences of removing constraints on simultaneous articulation of two languages?
- Do bimodal bilinguals code-switch (alternate between languages)?
- Does bimodal bilingualism affect co-speech gesture?
- How do bimodal bilinguals control sign language production while speaking?
- What is the nature of the bimodal bilingual brain?
This research is supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (R01 HD047736).
- Emmorey, K. (2018). Variation in L1 acquisition? Commentary on R.I. Mayberry and R. Kluender “Rethinking the critical period for language: New insights into an old question from American Sign Language.” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition.
- Giezen, M.R., & Emmorey, K. (2017). Evidence for a bimodal bilingual disadvantage in letter fluency, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. 20(1), 42–48.
- Li, L., Abutalebi, J., Emmorey, K., Gong, G., Yan, Z., Feng, Z., Zou, L., & Ding, G. (2017). How bilingualism protects the brain from aging: insights from bimodal bilinguals. Human Brain Mapping, 38(3), 4109-4124. Click to request PDF
- Giezen, M.R., & Emmorey, K. (2017). Evidence for a bimodal bilingual disadvantage in letter fluency, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. 20(1), 42–48. Click to request PDF
- Giezen, M.R., & Emmorey, K. (2016). Semantic integration and age of acquisition effects in code-blend comprehension. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 21(2), 213–221.
- Emmorey, K., Giezen, M.R., & Gollan, T.H. (2015). Psycholinguistic, cognitive, and neural implications of bimodal bilingualism. Keynote Article, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. doi:10.1017/S1366728915000085 Click to request PDF
- Weisberg, J., Hubbard, A.L., & Emmorey, K. (2016). Multimodal integration of spontaneously produced representational co-speech gestures: An fMRI study. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience. Click to request PDF
- Giezen, M.R., & Emmorey, K. (2016). Language co-activation and lexical selection in bimodal bilinguals: Evidence from picture-word interference. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition.
- Giezen, M.R., Blumenfeld, H., Shook, A., Marian, V., & Emmorey, K. (2015). Parallel language activation and inhibitory control in bimodal bilinguals. Cognition, 141, 9-25.
- Emmorey, K., Petrich, J.A.F., & Gollan, T. H. (2013). Bimodal bilingualism and the frequency-lag hypothesis. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 18(1), 1-11.
- Nicodemus, B., & Emmorey, K. (2013). Direction asymmetries in spoken and signed language interpreting. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16(3), 624-636.
- Casey, S., Emmorey, K., & Larrabee, H. (2012). The effects of learning American Sign Language on co-speech gesture. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15(4), 677-686.
- Emmorey, K., Petrich, J.A.F., & Gollan, T.H. (2012). Bilingual processing of ASL-English code-blends: The consequences of accessing two lexical representations simultaneously. Journal of Memory and Language, 67, 199-210.
- Pyers, J., Gollan, T.H., & Emmorey, K. (2009). Bimodal bilinguals reveal the source of tip-of-the-tongue states. Cognition, 112, 323-329.
- Casey, S., & Emmorey, K. (2009). Co-speech gesture in bimodal bilinguals. Language and Cognitive Processes, 24 (2), 290-312.
- Emmorey, K., Luk, G., Pyers, J.E., & Bialystok, E. (2008). The source of enhanced cognitive control in bilinguals. Psychological Science, 19(12), 1201-1206.
- Mott, M., Midgley, K., Holcomb, P., Meade, G., & Emmorey, K. (2017). Picture-word interference in bimodal bilinguals. Poster presented at the Society for the Neurobiology of Language, November, Baltimore, MD.
- Mott, M., Midgley, K., Emmorey, K., & Holcomb, P. (2017). Effects of iconicity on cross-modal translation priming in hearing learners of American Sign Language and deaf native signers: An ERP study. Poster presented at the Cognitive Neuroscience Society meeting, March, San Francisco, CA.
- Muller de Quadros, R., Lillo-Martin, D., Polinsky, M., & Emmorey, K. (2016). Heritage signers: Bimodal bilingual structures. Paper presented at the Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition North America (GALANA), October, Urbana-Champaign, IL.
- Mott, M., Meade, G., Winsler, K., Campbell, S., Midgley, K., Emmorey, K., & Holcomb, P. (2016). An electrophysiological study of initial American Sign Language acquisition in adult learners. Poster presented at the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, April, New York, New York.
- Silance, N., Giezen, M., & Emmorey, K., (2015). Cross-language semantic interference effects during picture naming in bimodal bilinguals. San Diego State University Student Research Symposium, March, San Diego, California. (pdf)
- Emmorey, K., Petrich, J., & Gollan, T. (2014). Evidence from bimodal bilinguals indicates “turning a language ON” is not costly, but “turning a language OFF” is. Paper presented at the Psychonomic Society Meeting, November, Long Beach, California.
- Giezen, M., & Emmorey, K. (2014). Semantic integration during code-blend comprehension in bimodal bilinguals. Poster presented at the Psychonomic Society Meeting, November, Long Beach, California. (pdf)
- Pyers, J. Emmorey, K., & Gollan, T. (2014). Unlike gestures, production of ASL signs impairs word retrieval for ASL-English bilinguals. Paper presented at the International Society for Gesture Studies conference, July, San Diego, California.